Home      Unit 1       Unit 2       Unit 3       Unit 4        Unit 5      Unit 6    Files

This is Lectures 1Introduction.        This covers the contents of Chapter 1


Is the study of the structure of the body and relationship of the bodys structures to each other

Branches of Anatomy microscopic, radiographic, embryology, gross, clinical etc.

Developmental anatomy the changes in the body from conception until physical maturity.

Surface anatomy form and superficial markings of the body


  The chemical functions of the body including metabolism, growth and development etc.

 Levels of Organization

 1)      Molecular chemical = C, H, O, Na, P, K, N that comprise proteins, lipids, carbohydrates.

2)      Cellular building blocks of life (makes up the tissues of an organism)

3)      Tissue group of similar cells with similar functions. the process of cellular specialization is called      differentiation

4)      Organs 2 or more tissues with a specific function. (ie: heart, lungs, liver etc.)

5)      Organ Systems related organs with a common function. (ie: cardiovascular, immune, respiratory)

6)      Organism systems working together to maintain homeostasis. 

Organ Systems

1)      Integumentary First line of defense, Sensory input, air conditioning system for homeostasis

2)      Skeletal Structure for movement, site of RBC and WBC production, buffering for homeostasis

3)      Muscular Movement, body heat for homeostasis

4)      Cardiovascular Movement of essential molecules to and from the cells for homeostasis

5)      Respiratory oxygen intake, C02 expiration, buffer system for homeostasis

6)      Nervous control system for homeostasis

7)      Digestive intake of nutrients for homeostasis

8)      Urinary Maintains blood concentrations, pH, ions and uric acid for homeostasis

9)      Endocrine long term control of metabolic activities for homeostasis

10)  Immune protection system of the body

11)  Reproductive keep the species going!

  Life Processes (differentiate organisms from non-living matter)

1)      Metabolism breakdown of foods

a.      Catabolism breakdown of molecules that results in the release of energy.

b.      Anabolism using energy to build structures and perform tasks necessary for life

c.      Homeostasis when all system are functioning normally, and the internal environment of the            body will be relatively stable at all levels. Cells have necessary parameters to stay alive.                          ie: temp, water, energy etc.

2)      Responsiveness ability to detect & react to stimuli.

3)      Movement both internal (food, blood, materials) or external running, etc.

4)      Growth & Differentiationgeneral to specific (growth=increase in size; differentiation=change from      nonspecific to specific.

5)      Reproduction - ensuring DNA lives on!

How does each of these systems contribute to homeostasis?

 Anatomical landmarks (know all of them!)



Anatomical position: standing, feet facing forward, palms facing forward (anteriorly) (Above left)

Anatomical Quadrants (generally used by emergency personnel and practitioners)

  • RUQ Right Upper Quadrant (rt. Lobe of liver, gall bladder, rt. Kidney, part of stomach, small & large intestine.)

  • RLQ cecum, appendix, part of the small intestine, repro organs right.

  • LUQ left Lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, spleen, and left kidney, portion of large intestine.

  • LLQ intestine, reproductive left side, weters.


 Anatomical Directions:

  • Anterior ventral; front and toward the front

  • Posterior dorsal; back and toward the back

  • Cranial cephalic; head and toward the head

  • Cauda coccyx; tail and toward the coccyx

  • Superior toward the head

  • Inferior toward the tail

  • Medial mid-line; toward the middle

  • Lateral away from the mid-line

  • Proxial close to an attachment to axial body

  • Distal away from an attachment to axial body

  • Superficial toward the surface; closer than ref.

  • Deep deeper than the reference point


 Sectional Anatomical Planes

3 sectional planes - understand that any parallel plane is also the same directional plane

  1. Transverse plane horizontal to the body, into superior and inferior parts.
  2. Frontal plane (coronal) creates anterior and posterior parts
  3. Sagittal plane cuts body parts into left and right sides.
  4. Oblique planes  self explanatory

 Body Cavities


  1. To protect the body.
  2. Permit significant changes in the size and shape of the body parts.

Dorsal Body cavityCranial and spinal (vertebral)

Ventral BC respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, reproductive (includes thoracic and abdominopelvic)

Thoracic cavityencloses the chest wall (superior to diaphragm)

  1. Pericardial cavity (heart)
  2. Mediastinal cavity (trachea, esophagus, heart vessels)
  3. Pleural cavity (lungs)
  4. Mediastinum (know all of the borders and contents!)


nasal, oral, otal (ear) 


Abdominal Cavity:

  • Abdominal - inferior to diaphragm.  Contains liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, large & small intestine, kidneys.

  • Pelvic -superior border is the "pelvic inlet" and continues to the pelvic floor and contains the reproductive organs, bladder and rectum.
  • Abdominopelvic contains both of above

 Body Membranes 

  1. Protect from movement (friction of movement and to lubricate) they are composed of two layers:
    1. Parietal membranes adjacent to the body wall
    2. Visceral closest to or surrounds organs.
    1. Pleural membranes lung
    2. Pericardial membrane heart
    3. Peritoneal membrane covers abdominal & pelvis cavity.


Why is it important to know the exact definitions of the boundaries of each cavity?

 Clinical Anatomy: An Introduction to Medical Imaging Techniques

A.   X-Ray Imaging

1. Traditional X-ray images continue to play a major role in medical diagnoses involving bone and abnormal dense structures such as a tumor.

B.   Advanced X-Ray Techniques

1. Computed tomography (CT) or computed axial tomography (CAT) produces improved X-ray images that are computer enhanced for clarity.

2. Dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR) produces three-dimensional images of body organs that can be rotated.

3. Xenon CT is used to diagnose a stroke (a blockage or cutting off of blood flowing to the brain).

4. Digital subtraction angiography imaging (DSA) produces sharp images of blood vessels injected with a contrast medium.

C.  Positron emission tomography tracks radioisotopes in the body, locating areas of high energy consumption and high blood flow

D.  Sonography (ultrasound imaging) provides sonar images of developing fetuses and internal body structures, such as an enlarged liver.

E.   Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subjects the body to strong magnetic fields and radio waves, producing high-contrast images of soft body parts.

Why is it important to know the differences between all of these imaging techniques?



The following videos explain each topic further:


Organ Systems



How does each system contribute to homeostasis?



What are the two different metabolic processes and how do they work?



What are the three steps of homeostasis? 

How are changes made to return a change in homeostasis to normal?


Why are the landmarks (which are superficial) important?

Anatomical Position and Directions




Cavities and Membranes



Imaging - Clinical anatomy