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This is Lectures 1Introduction. This covers the contents of Chapter 1
Is the study of the structure of the body and relationship of the body’s structures to each other
Branches of Anatomy – microscopic, radiographic, embryology, gross, clinical etc.
Developmental anatomy – the changes in the body from conception until physical maturity.
Surface anatomy – form and superficial markings of the body
The chemical functions of the body including metabolism, growth and development etc.
Levels of Organization
1) Molecularà chemical = C, H, O, Na, P, K, N that comprise proteins, lipids, carbohydrates.
2) Cellularà building blocks of life (makes up the tissues of an organism)
3) Tissueà group of similar cells with similar functions. – the process of cellular specialization is called “differentiation”
4) Organsà 2 or more tissues with a specific function. (ie: heart, lungs, liver etc.)
5) Organ Systemsà related organs with a common function. (ie: cardiovascular, immune, respiratory)
6) Organismà systems working together to maintain homeostasis.
1) Integumentary – First line of defense, Sensory input, air conditioning system for homeostasis
2) Skeletal – Structure for movement, site of RBC and WBC production, buffering for homeostasis
3) Muscular – Movement, body heat for homeostasis
4) Cardiovascular – Movement of essential molecules to and from the cells for homeostasis
5) Respiratory – oxygen intake, C02 expiration, buffer system for homeostasis
6) Nervous – control system for homeostasis
7) Digestive – intake of nutrients for homeostasis
8) Urinary – Maintains blood concentrations, pH, ions and uric acid for homeostasis
9) Endocrine – long term control of metabolic activities for homeostasis
10) Immune – protection system of the body
11) Reproductive – keep the species going!
Life Processes (differentiate organisms from non-living matter)
1) Metabolismà breakdown of foods
a. Catabolismà breakdown of molecules that results in the release of energy.
b. Anabolismà using energy to build structures and perform tasks necessary for life
c. Homeostasisà when all system are functioning normally, and the internal environment of the body will be relatively stable at all levels. Cells have necessary parameters to stay alive. ie: temp, water, energy etc.
2) Responsivenessà ability to detect & react to stimuli.
3) Movementà both internal (food, blood, materials) or external running, etc.
4) Growth & Differentiationàgeneral to specific (growth=increase in size; differentiation=change from nonspecific to specific.
5) Reproduction - ensuring DNA lives on!
How does each of these systems contribute to homeostasis?
Anatomical landmarks (know all of them!)
Anatomical position: standing, feet facing forward, palms facing forward (anteriorly) (Above left)
Sectional Anatomical Planes
3 sectional planes - understand that any parallel plane is also the same directional plane
Clinical Anatomy: An Introduction to Medical Imaging Techniques
A. X-Ray Imaging
1. Traditional X-ray images continue to play a major role in medical diagnoses involving bone and abnormal dense structures such as a tumor.
B. Advanced X-Ray Techniques
1. Computed tomography (CT) or computed axial tomography (CAT) produces improved X-ray images that are computer enhanced for clarity.
2. Dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR) produces three-dimensional images of body organs that can be rotated.
3. Xenon CT is used to diagnose a stroke (a blockage or cutting off of blood flowing to the brain).
4. Digital subtraction angiography imaging (DSA) produces sharp images of blood vessels injected with a contrast medium.
C. Positron emission tomography tracks radioisotopes in the body, locating areas of high energy consumption and high blood flow
D. Sonography (ultrasound imaging) provides sonar images of developing fetuses and internal body structures, such as an enlarged liver.
E. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subjects the body to strong magnetic fields and radio waves, producing high-contrast images of soft body parts.
Why is it important to know the differences between all of these imaging techniques?
The following videos explain each topic further:
How does each system contribute to homeostasis?
What are the two different metabolic processes and how do they work?
What are the three steps of homeostasis?
How are changes made to return a change in homeostasis to normal?
Why are the landmarks (which are superficial) important?
Anatomical Position and Directions
Cavities and Membranes
Imaging - Clinical anatomy